What Travelers Need to Know About the Hawaii Volcano

Hawaii volcano (Credit: Andrew Richard Hara)

Despite the headlines, Hawai’i island is 99% open for business after the Kīlauea eruption (Credit: Andrew Richard Hara)

From my cottage at Puakea Ranch, near the northern tip of the island of Hawai‘i, I can see a rainbow arching through the pale blue sky over the bright green hills, the wind gently rippling the deep blue ocean below. Native white hibiscus with jaunty pink stamens and fragrant white plumeria blossom all around me, while saffron finches flutter through swaying palm trees. Some, including me, would call this paradise. But if I check my social media or news alerts, apparently I’m in hell.

A constant stream of videos and photos depict the island of Hawai‘i (also known as the Big Island) as an inferno of fountaining lava, burning homes, billowing toxic clouds, and raining ash. News reports that omit geographic and scientific context, and lead with fear-mongering headlines, imply no limit to the erupting Kīlauea volcano’s range, or reign, of destruction.

The problem is those images actually reflect only 1% of the island’s 4,028 square miles, including a small portion of its southeastern corner known as Lower Puna and the summit of Kīlauea, both of which are now closed to visitors. The roughly 2,000 people who sadly have had to evacuate their homes in two Lower Puna neighborhoods also number about 1% of Hawai‘i island’s total population.

So the relentless fire-and-brimstone coverage doesn’t just miss the big picture; it also creates a vividly distorted one that has understandably, if unnecessarily, frightened away prospective visitors to the island. By focusing on the negative impacts of a natural disaster confined to a remote area, social and news media are actually spreading financial hardship across the island and the state as cruise lines stop calling and reservations start falling.

This needlessly prevents many people from experiencing their own slice of paradise at one of the most exciting times to do so. As a travel writer and guidebook author who has visited Hawai‘i many times over the last 20 years, I feel it’s my kuleana (responsibility) to clear up as many misperceptions as I can. What follows is more of what travelers and their agents need to know:

The Hawaiian islands (Credit: Hawaii Tourism United States)

The Hawaiian islands (Credit: Hawaii Tourism United States)

1. All of Hawai‘i’s islands are volcanoes
Guess what? If you’ve been to Hawai‘i since 1983, you’ve experienced a volcanic eruption and lived to tell the tale.

All of the main islands of Hawai‘i were formed by shield volcanoes, which built up from the sea floor as magma slowly oozed from the earth’s oceanic crust between 700,000 and five million years ago. They do not explode like pyroclastic flow volcanoes such as Mount St. Helens or Vesuvius.

Despite what recent media reports suggest, Kīlauea volcano did not suddenly spring into action in May. It has been erupting from a remote vent in its East Rift Zone—which descends into Lower Puna—since 1983. Most of Kīlauea’s lava flows in the 35 years since have occurred in off-limits areas of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park and forest reserves. But in 2014, over a period of seven months, one flow came close to cutting off road access to Lower Puna. In 2016, lava from the same vent, Pu‘uʻō‘ō , slowly spilled across an unpaved portion of the park’s Chain of Craters Road and into the sea to the delight of hikers, mountain bikers, lava boat, and helicopter tour passengers who kept a safe distance from the spectacle.

2. It’s easy to avoid lava, laze, ash, and vog
To read many reports, you’d think these hazards of a volcanic eruption were everywhere, unexpected and unprecedented on Hawai‘i island. But that’s simply not true, as the daily updates of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, and state and local air quality monitoring, both show. The recent fissures that have created pools and fountains of lava first began as cracks in Kīlauea’s Lower East Rift Zone, appearing after a series of mostly small earthquakes that led the observatory to warn residents of possible eruptions.

For safety reasons, visitors are not allowed into the area where lava is flowing. Consequently, they are also not in danger of inhaling toxic laze, which forms when lava hits seawater. “It’s really only around the ocean entry that you will get super high concentrations of gases, so laze is not something that anybody should be worrying about,” said USGS volcanologist Wendy Stovall.

Similarly, the spread of ashfall from eruptions at the summit of Kīlauea, which some experts predict may last only a few more weeks based on similar activity in 1924, is limited to Volcano Village and isolated areas southwest of Kīlauea. For those wanting to explore southern attractions such as Ka‘ū Coffee Mill in Pāhala or Punalu‘u Black Sand Beach, “having a little bit of ash fall onto the ground or vehicle is not something that’s going to keep you from driving,” according to Stovall.

Vog, an atmospheric haze formed by elevated levels of sulphur dioxide from volcanic emissions, has been an occasional presence on parts of Hawai‘i Island since 1983 and whenever volcanoes were erupting before that. “Vog is like smog in Los Angeles,” notes Gary Marrow, co-owner of KapohoKine Adventures, which offers a variety of volcano, zipline and other excursions from Hilo and Kona. “If you look right now at the air quality in Beijing or Tokyo, the cruise lines are still going there, and it’s way worse than anything ever here on the Big Island.”

Although vog can be irritating, particularly to those with sensitive respiratory systems, its intensity varies with wind patterns and emissions. Prevailing trade winds push vog toward Kona, but only stronger emissions creep toward the Kohala Coast, home to some of the island’s most popular resorts. Visitors can always find at least one part of the island where skies are crystal clear on any given day. So, if vog is an irritant where you are, jump in a rental car and head to North Kohala, the cowboy town of Waimea or the lush Hāmākua Coast for clearer skies.

3. Nearly all visitor attractions remain open and safe
Although the Kīlauea summit area of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park remains closed “out of an abundance of caution,” according to park spokeswoman Jessica Ferracane, there’s still plenty to do on the island of Hawai‘i, from active pursuits such as ziplining, snorkeling, surfing, horseback riding, and hiking to indulgent pastimes such as shopping and dining.

Hilo and the east side of Hawai‘i island also offer opportunities for great road trips, according to Rob Pacheco, co-owner of Hawaii Forest and Trail, another of the island’s premier excursion operators. “There are great museums, including the ‘Imiloa Astronomy Center, Lyman Museum, Pacific Tsunami Museum, Mokupāpapa Discovery Center, the shopping and food scene is all really interesting in Hilo. You also have waterfalls, the Wailuku River, Onomea Scenic Drive, ‘Akaka Falls and the little plantation towns along the Old Māmalahoa Highway.”

At Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park, rangers have expanded hours and programs at the park’s Kahuku Unit, a 116,000-acre preserve on the slopes of Maunaloa, an hour south of the Kīlauea summit. Praising its “gorgeous” ‘ōhi‘a forest, which is currently in bloom, Ferracane says visitors can learn a lot about the 1868 eruptions that formed the area. “In their time the flows were destructive, but you can see how they are also life in Hawai‘i, and how the forest has just thrived so magnificently since. It’s a testament to how quickly life springs back and requires volcanoes to live here.”

4. Hawaiians celebrate pele as creation
Although everyone sympathizes with those who have lost homes in the current eruption—whose location is not far from similar eruptions that claimed homes in 1990, 1960 and 1955—native Hawaiians also celebrate the creation aspect of the natural force or deity they call Pele.

According to kumu hula (hula instructor) and cultural practitioner Micah Kamohoali‘i of Waimea, “We look at Pele, or the pele, meaning the lava, as creation. It’s godly forces happening in front of us. It’s like watching somebody give birth—you are completely enthralled with watching a life force being born out of something that’s very profound. To me, and most of our native people, that’s what’s happening with this eruption. To see the birth of more land, the creation of something new, is very exciting.”

In his view, there may be no better time to visit the island of Hawai‘i. Says Kamohoali‘i, “How many can say they saw creation happen? It’s not like the world is ending on Hawai‘i island. The world is beginning.”

 

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What Travelers Need to Know About the Hawaii Volcano
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About the Author

Jeanne Cooper
Former San Francisco Chronicle Travel Editor and Frommer’s Hawaii co-author Jeanne Cooper writes frequently about the Hawaiian islands for the Chronicle, magazines and websites. She encourages travelers to join her in donating to local relief efforts.

8 Comments on "What Travelers Need to Know About the Hawaii Volcano"

  1. I don’t think enough attention is being paid to the air quality issue. The article notes that the Vog goes toward Kona with prevailing winds. Anyone who has any kind of respiratory problem should seriously consider whether they’re willing to risk that exposure. I canceled my trip because of the uncertainty about the air-quality based on a previous trip there as well as my doctors advice.

  2. My wife and I have a trip to Kona coming up in August which we started planning for since July 2017. We’ve been worried that that we would have to cancel the trip (and lose money on all the costs we’ve already incurred in planning for the trip). This article puts our minds so much more at ease. THANK YOU for writing it, Jeanne! Now we’re more excited than ever for our trip to the Big Island!

  3. Jeanne Cooper | June 5, 2018 at 6:03 pm | Reply

    GG, you’re welcome! I hope your trip plans do include a rental car, to make avoiding any intense vog in Kailua-Kona easier…but note that the skies were blue above Kohanaiki (just south of the airport) today, and were clear in Kohala on all but two of the last 10 days I spent there. One morning it was clear but voggy in afternoon, so we looked at going to the new luxury cinemas in Waikoloa in the afternoon but ended up just relaxing at the Mauna Kea Resort and enjoying the vivid sunsets a little haze creates. We went to Hilo on another of those days — stopping at Kaumana Cave and Rainbow Falls as well as new Hula Hula’s restaurant on Hilo Bay in the Grand Naniloa — and could have easily spent more time exploring Honoka’a’s new stores and restaurants as well as other sights on the Hamakua Coast. I think you’ll have a great time and your business will definitely be appreciated!

  4. Jeanne Cooper | June 5, 2018 at 6:11 pm | Reply

    Aloha Sandy.
    Vog comes in many different levels and particulates / SO2 are monitored closely. One website to check is (where current conditions in Kona are shown as green/good) and another is (where Kona is shown as yellow/moderate). Note that exposure is typically minimal in the places I recommend: South and North Kohala, Waimea, Hamakua Coast and Hilo. Of course, if you’ve had a previous bad reaction to air quality (since there has been some vog regularly since 1983), or you have an existing respiratory condition, or both, it makes sense to avoid Kona — but people have been canceling trips statewide, which just doesn’t make sense. I hope your condition and/or Kona’s improves so that you can consider a trip in the future. Mahalo for reading my article!

  5. Jeanne Cooper | June 5, 2018 at 6:25 pm | Reply

    Aloha, one more site with real-time SO2 monitoring:
    Currently the highest level of SO2 in South Kona 2ppm or less, shown by a blue dot, meaning (per the EPA):
    “Individuals with pre-existing medical or respiratory conditions may be affected at these levels.
    • Little or no risk to healthy individuals.
    • People with breathing difficulties should take action to avoid exposure.”
    The site also notes:
    “Individuals with pre-existing respiratory conditions such as asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, lung or heart disease may be more severely impacted by poor air quality conditions. Note: Some people with mild asthma may not be aware of it. If you have breathing difficulties at low levels of SO2 or H2S, check with your healthcare provider. … People react differently to hazardous gas exposure – some are more sensitive. For many people simply reducing activity levels enough so that they can breathe through the nose will permit them to be outdoors without symptoms.”
    Obviously everyone should consult their own physician; I can’t provide medical advice. But just fyi, I have existing respiratory issues, so I reacted by staying in/moving to South and North Kohala as needed, while my husband and three friends who traveled with us reported no effects at any time from vog. If I were living and working full-time in Kona, my existing issues might pose a concern, but the typical vacationer is there for shorter periods with more flexibility. Aloha!

  6. We here in North Kohala know that the air in Kona is full of Vog when the trade winds slow. Now with our full blown Kilauea volcano lava flows and dangerous clouds of hydrochloric acid and Laze that is created when lava enters the ocean. It creates small slivers of class that can be breathed in and damage the lungs. You may want to rethink flying into Kona if you have breathing issues. Watch our weather at noaa.com and stay tuned to USGS and the volcano news…….keep informed.

  7. All good in Kona ! I just came back from 12 days on the island and 5 of these in south western part of the island (below Kailua) . I was part of a 20 person cycling group. We rode over 250 miles and no one had any issues with the air quality. We then moved to the Kohala coast above the airport to do the Honu Ironman triathlon….1,300 people participated, no air issues. In fact the conditions were perfect !

  8. Jeanne Cooper | June 16, 2018 at 12:55 am | Reply

    Aloha, I just wanted to address the anonymous comment from June 6: “Now with our full blown Kilauea volcano lava flows and dangerous clouds of hydrochloric acid and Laze that is created when lava enters the ocean. It creates small slivers of class that can be breathed in and damage the lungs.” The science in this statement is incorrect, as is the implication that people in Kona or other areas outside of a limited part of Puna are affected by laze or volcanic glass. Laze is the mist of hydrochloric acid that forms when lava hits ocean water, and its spread is limited to the ocean entry and immediate area. No one is in danger of coming into with laze who is not near the ocean entry. Volcanic glass, known as Pele’s hair, are created not by laze (or the entry of lava in the ocean), but by vigorous lava fountains and fissures that send tiny pieces of lava into the air. You will also not find Pele’s glass in Kona, Hilo or anywhere outside of Lower Puna as a result of this eruption; it typically wafts within a few hundred meters of the site, although it can be carried a few kilometers by high winds. If you fly into Kona, you will not be affected laze or volcanic glass. You may be affected by vog — but it has been voggy in Kona on and off since 1983 and especially since 2008. Many if not most visitors are unaffected, but if you are, I do recommend staying farther north.

    Read more at: http://hundredbacklinks.info/travelers-facts-hawaii-volcano-kilauea/

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